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## What is generic covariance?

Covariance and contravariance are terms that refer to the ability to use a more derived type (more specific) or a less derived type (less specific) than originally specified. Generic type parameters support covariance and contravariance to provide greater flexibility in assigning and using generic types.

## What is covariance in Java?

Covariance can be translated as “different in the same direction,” or with-different, whereas contravariance means “different in the opposite direction,” or against-different. Covariant and contravariant types are not the same, but there is a correlation between them. The names imply the direction of the correlation.

## What is covariance in coding?

Covariance means that a method can return a type that is derived from the delegate’s return type. Contra-variance means that a method can take a parameter that is a base of the delegate’s parameter type.

## What is covariant and invariant in Java?

Covariant would mean that a List<String> is a subtype of List<Object> , contravariant that a List<Object> is a subtype of List<String> and invariant that neither is a subtype of the other, i.e. List<String> and List<Object> are inconvertible types.

## What is variance in Java?

Variance refers to how subtyping between more complex types relates to subtyping between their components. … In java, variance is defined at the use-site.

## What are generic classes Java?

A Generic class simply means that the items or functions in that class can be generalized with the parameter(example T) to specify that we can add any type as a parameter in place of T like Integer, Character, String, Double or any other user-defined type.

## What are reified generics?

Reification & Reified Types

These are called Reifiable Types, they retain their type information at runtime, because they are not subjected to type erasure. The following 2 types are NOT Reifiable Type: Exact parameterised type — List<Number> Bounded parameterised type — List<?

## Which are the types of generic variance?

Four Kinds of Variance

- Covariant if it accepts subtypes but not supertypes.
- Contravariant if it accepts supertypes but not subtypes.
- Bivariant if it accepts both supertypes and subtypes.
- Invariant does not accept either supertypes nor subtypes.

## What is Reifiable?

A reifiable type is a type whose type information is fully available at runtime. … Non-reifiable types are types where information has been removed at compile-time by type erasure — invocations of generic types that are not defined as unbounded wildcards.

## What is the covariance formula?

In statistics, the covariance formula helps to assess the relationship between two variables. It is essentially a measure of the variance between two variables. The covariance formula is expressed as, Covariance formula for population: Cov(X,Y)=∑(Xi−¯¯¯¯X)(Yi−¯¯¯¯Y)n C o v ( X , Y ) = ∑ ( X i − X ¯ ) ( Y i − Y ¯ ) n.

## Is covariance a correlation?

Covariance indicates the direction of the linear relationship between variables while correlation measures both the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables. Correlation is a function of the covariance.

## What is DART covariant?

Summary. Existing Dart generics are covariant by default, which makes it easy to start writing new classes and to get started. This means, however, that more errors appear at runtime rather than at compile time. The user is also paying for the cost of additional runtime checks.

## What is covariance in statistics?

Covariance is a measure of how much two random variables vary together. It’s similar to variance, but where variance tells you how a single variable varies, co variance tells you how two variables vary together.

## How do you read Contravariance and covariance?

Covariance and Contravariance in Delegates

- Covariance permits a method to have a return type that is a subtype of the one defined in the delegate.
- Contravariance permits a method to have a parameter type that is a base type of the one defined in the delegate type.

## What is the difference between covariant and invariant?

Invariant: Any physical quantity is invariant when its value remains unchanged under coordinate or symmetry transformations. Covariant: The term covariant is usually used when the equations of physical systems are unchanged under coordinate transformations.